America’s Longest War: A Visual History of 18 Years in Afghanistan

Members of the 82nd Airborne Division walked back from an explosives exercise near the Orgun-e forward base in Afghanistan on Sept. 14, 2002.

Photo: Chris Hondros/Getty Images

The war in Afghanistan has spanned the administrations of presidents George W. Bush, Barack Obama and Donald Trump. The cost has been high.

Now, peace is in the making, with the U.S. and the Taliban signing a landmark agreement in Doha, Qatar, on Saturday meant to lead to the withdrawal of American forces from a war that has claimed the lives of more than 2,300 U.S. troops and so far cost the U.S. nearly $2 trillion, according to Brown University’s Cost of War Project.

Peace, however, is fragile and to make it last, the Taliban and the government in Kabul now must sit down and negotiate the political terms for ending Afghanistan’s war and sharing power between the warring factions.

The stakes are immense. Thousands of civilians are killed every year. The Taliban may have agreed to negotiate, but it is by no measure militarily defeated. The group controls or contests more territory than at any time since the war began. Afghanistan security forces remain dependent on U.S. air and ground support. The coming months will determine whether peace holds or whether Afghanistan slides back into violence.

Here is a look back at the war that has run more than 18 years, longer than World War I, World War II and the Korean War combined.

Afghans gathered at a bazaar in downtown Kandahar that was nearly 100% open and bustling on Nov. 2, 2001, despite U.S. airstrikes.

Photo: ROBERT NICKELSBERG/GETTY IMAGES

2001-2003
The Sept. 11 Attacks, the Invasion of Afghanistan and the Toppling of the Taliban

Fifteen days after 19 al Qaeda operatives hijacked four commercial airliners and crash them into New York’s World Trade Center, the Pentagon in Washington and a field in Somerset County in Pennsylvania, a dozen Central Intelligence Agency operatives carrying $10 million in cash land by helicopter in northern Afghanistan. Their task is to lay the groundwork for a U.S. invasion to end Afghanistan’s use as a terrorist base and to bring the perpetrators of the Sept. 11 attacks to justice. No Taliban or other Afghans participated in the attacks, but the Taliban regime had given sanctuary to al Qaeda and its leader, Saudi-born Osama bin Laden, and in launching America’s global war on terror in the aftermath of Sept. 11, President George W. Bush had declared: “We will make no distinctions between those who planned these acts and those who harbor them.”

Cost of the Afghanistan War

$120

 billion

100

80

60

40

20

0

FY2001

’02

’03

’04

’05

’06

’07

’08

’09

’10

’11

’12

’13

’14

’15

’16

’17

’18

’19

Cost of the Afghanistan War

$120

 billion

100

80

60

40

20

0

FY2001

’02

’03

’04

’05

’06

’07

’08

’09

’10

’11

’12

’13

’14

’15

’16

’17

’18

’19

Cost of the Afghanistan War

$120

 billion

100

80

60

40

20

0

FY2001

’02

’03

’04

’05

’06

’07

’08

’09

’10

’11

’12

’13

’14

’15

’16

’17

’18

’19

Cost of the Afghanistan War

$120

 billion

100

80

60

40

20

0

FY2002

’04

’06

’08

’10

’12

’14

’16

’18

Note: Fiscal years end Sept. 30

Source: Neta C. Crawford, Costs of War, Watson Institute, Brown University

Northern Alliance fighters looked on as around 500 Taliban soldiers surrendered on Nov. 24, 2001.

Photo: CHERYL DIAZ MEYER/DALLAS MORNING NEWS/ZUMA PRESS

A mujahedeen soldier waited for help after being shot in the neck by Taliban soldiers as Northern Alliance troops entered Kunduz, Afghanistan, on Nov. 26, 2001.

Photo: CHERYL DIAZ MEYER/DALLAS MORNING NEWS/ZUMA PRESS

U.S. airstrikes on al Qaeda positions in the mountains of Tora Bora.

Photo: Kate Brooks/Redux Pictures

U.S. combat operations officially begin Oct. 7, with airstrikes against al Qaeda training camps and Taliban military installations. Under pressure from American air power and an anti-Taliban coalition of Afghan warlords and tribal leaders, the Taliban regime unravels quickly and collapses on Dec. 9. Taliban fighters and al Qaeda militants scatter, some to the mountains and other remote areas of Afghanistan, others to Pakistan. The American commitment to the Taliban’s overthrow consists of about 425 CIA operatives and Special Forces personnel, plus massive air power.

In early December 2001, bin Laden is tracked to the Tora Bora cave complex in eastern Afghanistan, but following two weeks of fierce fighting between al Qaeda fighters and local militias, accompanied by heavy U.S. bombing, he escapes on horseback.

On Dec. 5, 2001, a United Nations-organized conference of Afghan political factions meeting in Bonn, Germany, forms a government headed by Hamid Karzai and creates an international peacekeeping force to maintain security in Kabul.

Hamid Karzai, who in December 2001 became chairman of the Transitional Administration following the Taliban’s ouster, meets with tribal leaders and military commanders at the Presidential Palace.

Photo: Kate Brooks/Redux Pictures

By March 2002, the U.S. force in Afghanistan grows to 7,200, as U.S. and local forces scour Tora Bora for bin Laden and hunt down al Qaeda and Taliban fighters in the rest of the country. Within months of the Taliban’s fall, however, the Pentagon begins shifting military and intelligence assets away from Afghanistan to prepare for the invasion of Saddam Hussein’s Iraq.

In April 2002, President Bush expands U.S. war aims in Afghanistan, as he calls for the reconstruction of an Afghanistan that is free from the evil of the Taliban and a “better place” to live. The U.S. military assumes a central role in coordinating humanitarian aid and expanding the authority of the Kabul government.

On May 1, 2003—some six weeks after the U.S. invades Iraq—Defense Secretary Donald Rumsfeld declares an end to major combat in Afghanistan, saying a “period of stability and stabilization and reconstruction” has begun. At the time, there are about 8,000 U.S. soldiers deployed in Afghanistan.

Members of the 82nd Airborne duck away from the debris being thrown into the air as a Black Hawk helicopter prepares to extract soldiers who had just completed a search of remote villages in southeastern Afghanistan in September 2002.

Photo: Rick Loomis/Los Angeles Times/Getty Images

2004-2008:
Democratic Milestones, Faltering Reform and Taliban Resurgence

In 2004, Afghans achieve two political milestones amid sporadic fighting in the south and east of the country. In January, some 500 tribal and community leaders agree on a constitution that creates a strong presidential system to unite Afghanistan’s fractious ethnic groups. In October, Hamid Karzai becomes the first democratically elected head of Afghanistan. While fraud allegations mar his election victory, the vote is hailed as a landmark in establishing democratic institutions.

Reconstruction and reform aimed at creating a stake for Afghans in the Kabul government lags, however, and in mid-2006, violence escalates across the country, especially in the south where, along with neighboring Pakistan, the Taliban are based. By year’s end, suicide attacks have quintupled over the previous year, and remotely detonated bombings have more than doubled.

Afghan citizens in Kabul vote at the Jaffaria Mosque in their first-ever presidential election on Oct. 9, 2004.

Photo: Robert Nickelsberg/Getty Images

The Taliban revival is blamed on Pakistan’s support for the insurgency and on the weakness and ineffectiveness of the Karzai government. Many Afghans still lack basic services and adequate police forces, and there are too few international forces to assist with security. Corruption worsens and reaches the highest levels of government, as hundreds of millions of dollars in aid pour into the country and the U.S., in one way or another, pays for almost all of the operations of the Ghani government and the security forces fighting for it.

The Taliban resurgence is overshadowed by the chaotic aftermath of the U.S. invasion of Iraq and the need for American troops and other resources to end inter-communal violence there. U.S. forces in Afghanistan remain at just over 20,000 at the end of 2006, when Defense Secretary Robert Gates chastises NATO countries for not sending more troops.

U.S. fatalities

500

400

300

200

100

0

2001

’02

’03

’04

’05

’06

’07

’08

’09

’10

’11

’12

’13

’14

’15

’16

’17

’18

’19

’20

U.S. fatalities

500

400

300

200

100

0

2001

’02

’03

’04

’05

’06

’07

’08

’09

’10

’11

’12

’13

’14

’15

’16

’17

’18

’19

’20

U.S. fatalities

500

400

300

200

100

0

2001

’02

’03

’04

’05

’06

’07

’08

’09

’10

’11

’12

’13

’14

’15

’16

’17

’18

’19

’20

U.S. fatalities

500

400

300

200

100

0

2002

’04

’06

’08

’10

’12

’14

’16

’18

’20

Source: iCasualties

Civilian casualties

4,000

3,000

2,000

1,000

0

2001

’02

’03

’04

’05

’06

’07

’08

’09

’10

’11

’12

’13

’14

’15

’16

’17

’18

’19

Civilian casualties

4,000

3,000

2,000

1,000

0

2001

’02

’03

’04

’05

’06

’07

’08

’09

’10

’11

’12

’13

’14

’15

’16

’17

’18

’19

Civilian casualties

4,000

3,000

2,000

1,000

0

2001

’02

’03

’04

’05

’06

’07

’08

’09

’10

’11

’12

’13

’14

’15

’16

’17

’18

’19

Civilian casualties

4,000

3,000

2,000

1,000

0

2002

’04

’06

’08

’10

’12

’14

’16

’18

Source: United Nations Assistance Mission in Afghanistan

“Our progress in Afghanistan is real but it is fragile,” Mr. Gates says. “At this time, many allies are unwilling to share the risks, commit the resources, and follow through on collective commitments to this mission and to each other. As a result, we risk allowing what has been achieved in Afghanistan to slip away.”

On Aug. 22, 2008, residents of a village in Herat province’s Shindand district are preparing a memorial service for a local man who had recently died and are cooking food at night over outdoor fires when a U.S. helicopter gunship opens fire. A U.N. investigation later finds that 90 civilians, including 60 children, were killed in the airstrikes. It is the deadliest case of civilian casualties since the war began in 2001. Civilian casualties during U.S. military operations, which alienate the Afghan public and damage the U.S. military’s relationship with the Afghan government, are a persistent theme throughout the war.

A soldier rests at the end of a day of heavy fighting at the Restrepo outpost in Afghanistan’s Korengal Valley in 2007.

Photo: TIM A. HETHERINGTON/Magnum Photos

Soldiers with the 173rd division and Afghan workers hide in a bunker at the KOP forward operating base as the Taliban fire mortars.

Photo: Lynsey Addario/Getty Images Reportage

A 2010 view of the Arghandab River, which separates the two volatile districts west of Kandahar City—Panjwaii and Zhari.

Photo: Louie Palu/ZUMA PRESS

2009-2010:
The Obama Surge

President Obama declares Afghanistan, not Iraq, the most important front in the U.S. war against terrorism. When he is sworn in as U.S. president on Jan. 20, 2009, the Pentagon has 32,000 troops in Afghanistan. By year’s end, there are 67,000 American forces and 30,000 more on the way.

U.S. officials say the Afghan war effort has been unfocused and under-resourced, and that havens Pakistan provided to militants have undermined the fight against the Taliban and al Qaeda. The goal of the troop surge, Mr. Obama says, is to take the fight to al Qaeda and the resurgent Taliban and to accelerate the training of Afghan security forces.

While overseeing the largest troop deployments of the war, Mr. Obama also puts a timeline on the American presence in Afghanistan, saying he will start drawing down U.S. forces in July 2011. The partial schedule—he doesn’t say when the troop withdrawal will be completed—is an acknowledgment of shrinking public approval for the war. It is also a message to the Kabul government that the American troop commitment isn’t open-ended and that responsibility for fighting the war will sooner, not later, be turned over to Afghans. Donald Trump and other critics will later say the timeline only served as a signal to the Taliban that they could wait out the U.S.

An Afghan woman in a remote area of Badakshan holds her sick daughter before seeing a midwife from a mobile health unit funded by a United Nations agency in 2009.

Photo: Lynsey Addario/Getty Images Reportage

On Aug. 5, 2009, a missile strikes a villa in the Pakistan’s South Waziristan district, bordering Afghanistan. The drone strike tears apart a Taliban commander named Baitullah Mehsud, who is sitting on a balcony of the villa with his wife when the missile hits. The strike comes as Mr. Obama ramps up the use of drones to fight Taliban and al Qaeda militants, especially in Pakistan, whose powerful military and intelligence service provides the Taliban with clandestine aid, weapons and money. The sharply expanded drone war, most of it conducted in secret, reflects Mr. Obama’s ambition to keep up the war against al Qaeda, Taliban and other Islamist militants while extricating the U.S. military from intractable, costly ground wars in Asia and elsewhere.

On July 2, 2009, U.S. Marines launch a major offensive in southern Helmand province, in a major test for the U.S. military’s new counterinsurgency strategy. Some 4,000 Marines are involved in the offensive, the largest Marine offensive since its battle for the Iraqi city of Fallujah five years earlier. The aim of the operation is to restore government services, bolster local police forces and protect civilians from Taliban incursions (”clear, hold and build”). By August 2019, the Taliban will control or contest 12 of Helmand’s 14 districts, while a small contingent of Marines and Afghan security forces maintain a toehold in the province, heartland of the country’s opium production.

Afghan soldiers carry a wounded comrade into an American helicopter after a Taliban ambush near the village of Tsunek, Kunar province, in March 2010.

Photo: Moises Saman/Magnum Photos

A gravely wounded Afghan man waits to be loaded into a medevac helicopter called by the 82nd Airborne Division after a civilian truck hit a buried mine on June 21, 2010, in Khushi Khona, Herat Province, Afghanistan.

Photo: Chris Hondros/Getty Images

On Nov. 2, 2009, the incumbent president, Hamid Karzai, is declared the winner of disputed elections. Under international pressure, Mr. Karzai agrees to a runoff vote following the fraud-tainted Aug. 20 election, but his rival, Abdullah Abdullah, refuses to participate, saying the vote would be neither free nor fair. The crisis reinforces the Obama administration’s doubts about Mr. Karzai and renews questions about political progress in Kabul.

In 2010, American military presence in Afghanistan peaks at about 100,000 troops, with other NATO member states providing another 30,000 soldiers. 2010 also is the bloodiest year for international forces allied with the government, as 710 military personnel—499 of them American—are killed.

Lance Cpl. Joshua Bernard is helped by fellow U.S. Marines after being hit by a rocket-propelled grenade during a firefight against the Taliban on Aug. 14, 2009, in Helmand province. Cpl. Bernard later died of his wounds.

Photo: Julie Jacobson/Associated Press

U.S. Marine makes his way toward food supplies after they were dropped off by small parachutes from a plane outside Forward Operating Base Edi in Helmand province on June 9, 2011.

Photo: Anja Niedringhaus/ASSOCIATED PRESS

2011-2016:
Bin Laden Killed and Drawdown

On May 1, 2011, U.S. Special Forces kill Osama bin Laden in the northern Pakistani city of Abbottabad. The death of the main target of the world-wide campaign that started 10 years earlier revives debate about the Afghan war. As Mr. Obama prepares to meet his deadline for starting the withdrawal of some American forces, some criticize the drawdown as too precipitous, given the fragility of Afghanistan, while others say it is too slow, given the domestic demands that are being neglected as a result of the $10 billion-a-month war effort.

In June 2011, Mr. Obama says the U.S. has “turned a corner” in the war since his troop surge the previous year, becoming the latest American official and general use the metaphor to describe progress in standing up the Afghan security forces. But several incidents undermine the purported progress, including the accidental burning of Qurans by U.S. troops in February 2012 and allegations that an American soldier murdered at least 16 Afghan villagers three weeks later.

U.S. troops deployed to Afghanistan since Sept. 11, 2001 attacks

100

 thousand

80

60

40

20

0

2002

’03

’04

’05

’06

’07

’08

’09

’10

’11

’12

’13

’14

’15

’16

’17

’18

’19

’20

U.S. troops deployed to Afghanistan since Sept. 11, 2001 attacks

100

 thousand

80

60

40

20

0

2002

’03

’04

’05

’06

’07

’08

’09

’10

’11

’12

’13

’14

’15

’16

’17

’18

’19

’20

U.S. troops deployed to Afghanistan since Sept. 11, 2001 attacks

100

 thousand

80

60

40

20

0

2002

’03

’04

’05

’06

’07

’08

’09

’10

’11

’12

’13

’14

’15

’16

’17

’18

’19

’20

U.S. troops deployed to Afghanistan since Sept. 11, 2001 attacks

100

 thousand

80

60

40

20

0

2002

’04

’06

’08

’10

’12

’14

’16

’18

’20

Sources: Brookings Institution; U.S. military

Deployments in the Afghanistan and Iraq wars (2001-2015)

Army

Air Force

Marine Corps

Navy

Individuals

deployed

Number of

deployments

0 million

1

2

3

4

5

6

Deployments in the Afghanistan and Iraq wars (2001-2015)

Army

Air Force

Marine Corps

Navy

Individuals

deployed

Number of

deployments

0 million

1

2

3

4

5

6

Deployments in the Afghanistan and Iraq wars (2001-2015)

Army

Air Force

Marine Corps

Navy

Individuals

deployed

Number of

deployments

0 million

1

2

3

4

5

6

Deployments in the Afghanistan and Iraq wars (2001-2015)

Army

Air Force

Marine Corps

Navy

Individuals

deployed

Number of

deployments

0 million

1

2

3

4

5

6

Army

Air Force

Marine Corps

Navy

Individuals

deployed

Number of

deployments

0 million

1

2

3

4

5

6

Source: Rand Corporation

On Sept. 21, 2014, Ashraf Ghani and Abdullah Abdullah sign a power-sharing agreement brokered by the U.S. to prevent an outbreak of factional fighting following a fraud-marred election on April 5. Under the deal, Mr. Ghani, a former World Bank executive, becomes president and Mr. Abdullah chief executive. Continued tussling between the two over government appointments cripples the government as the Taliban make gains across the country.

On Dec. 28, 2014, U.S.-led NATO forces formally end their combat operations in Afghanistan, leaving the Afghan army and police in charge of security in a country still plagued by a ferocious insurgency and a rising tide of military and civilian casualties. The U.S. and other NATO member states will continue providing military training, with additional American forces carrying out counterterrorism operations and airstrikes. While security is now formally the responsibility of government forces, U.S. and Afghan officials say without American support, the armed forces would quickly collapse.

After decades of conflict many women in Afghanistan are widowed, struggling to survive. Here, a mother of five, Bib Aisha begged for money after her husband was killed by the Taliban in the 1990s. She now relies on her son for support.

Photo: Paula Bronstein for The Wall Street Journal

On Sept. 28, 2015, the Taliban overrun the northern city of Kunduz and succeed in holding it until U.S. and Afghan forces drive them out three days later. The city’s seizure is a stark illustration of the failure of the Obama surge to reverse the momentum of the insurgency, which has succeeded, despite thousands of additional American and other international forces, in taking the war to the north of the country from its strongholds in the south and east.

On July 16, 2016, as Mr. Obama enters his final months in office, Mr. Obama says Afghan security forces “are still not as strong as they need” and slows the drawdown in a war he vowed to end on his watch. He says he will leave 8,400 American troops in Afghanistan until the end of his presidency, instead of dropping the troop level to 5,500, as planned. “When we first sent our forces into Afghanistan 14 years ago, few Americans imagined we’d be there—in any capacity—this long,” he says, acknowledging the public’s frustration with the duration of the war.

A traffic policeman restrains a motorist in central Kunduz three weeks after it was partially taken over by the Taliban in early October 2016.

Photo: Andrew Quilty for The Wall Street Journal

2017-Present:
Trump’s New Strategy, Stalemate and Negotiations

On April 13, 2017, the U.S. drops its most powerful nonnuclear bomb on suspected Islamic State militants at a cave complex in eastern Nangarhar province. The use of the weapon, known colloquially as “the mother of all bombs,” casts light on emergence, starting several years earlier, of a local affiliate of the radical jihadist group Islamic State. Though far smaller than its more nationalistic rival, Islamic State-Khorasan Province vies with the Taliban for members, funding and attention, with often deadly results.

On Aug. 21, 2017, Mr. Trump announces a new Afghan war strategy. He rejects nation-building as an aim of U.S. policy and says winning the war is America’s focus. He undertakes his own surge, delegating to U.S. military officials the option of deploying as many as 7,000 more U.S. forces to Afghanistan. He also loosens the rules of engagement for U.S. commanders, including the use of airstrikes to support Afghan ground forces. Army Gen. John Nicholson, commander of U.S. and NATO forces in Afghanistan, calls the plan a “game-changer” that puts government forces and their allies “on path to win,” becoming the latest American official to say that the U.S. and its Afghan partners have turned the corner or are about to do so.

An Afghan commando and Special Forces convoy drives between the Afghan National Army’s 10th Brigade headquarters on the outskirts of Kunduz and a police base in October 2016.

Photo: Andrew Quilty for The Wall Street Journal

Afghan commandos load into an armored vehicle in Shadal Bazaar, about a mile from the entrance to the Mohmand Valley, where the so-called Mother of All Bombs was dropped on April 13, 2017.

Photo: Andrew Quilty for The Wall Street Journal

In January 2018, Taliban fighters carry out a series of attacks in the Afghan capital, most notably detonating an ambulance loaded with explosives on a heavily populated street during rush hour, killing at least 103 people. The attacks suggest that while the Taliban are unable to seize and control major population centers, they can sow mayhem almost anywhere.

On July 22, 2018, direct talks between the U.S. and the Taliban resume, in what appears to be a tacit recognition on both sides that a military victory isn’t possible. Four years of secret diplomacy during the Obama administration aimed at reaching a political settlement to end the Afghan war, or at least reduce its violence, had collapsed in 2013. In the latest effort, the insurgency’s political representatives and a team of American officials led by Alice Wells, acting head of the State Department’s bureau of South and Central Asian affairs, hold two days of discussions in the Gulf state of Qatar.

Length of U.S. involvement in major conflicts

1900

1920

1940

1960

1980

2000

2020

WWI

WWII

Korean War

Vietnam

Gulf War

Afghanistan

Iraq War

Length of U.S. involvement in major conflicts

1900

1920

1940

1960

1980

2000

2020

WWI

WWII

Korean War

Vietnam

Gulf War

Afghanistan

Iraq War

Length of U.S. involvement in major conflicts

1900

1920

1940

1960

1980

2000

2020

WWI

WWII

Korean War

Vietnam

Gulf War

Afghanistan

Iraq War

Length of U.S. involvement in major conflicts

1920

1940

1960

1980

2000

1900

2020

WWI

WWII

Korean War

Vietnam

Gulf War

Afghanistan

Iraq War

Length of U.S. involvement in major conflicts

1920

1940

1960

1980

2000

1900

2020

WWI

WWII

Korean War

Vietnam

Gulf War

Afghanistan

Iraq War

Source: Congressional Research Service

Areas of control in Afghanistan

DISTRICTS

Government

of Afghanistan

133

Contested

190

Taliban

74

Unconfirmed

1

POPULATION

15,157,565

13,286,692

451,928

43,004

Areas of control in Afghanistan

Government

of Afghanistan

Taliban

Contested

Unconfirmed

DISTRICTS

133

190

74

1

POPULATION

15,157,565

13,286,692

451,928

43,004

Areas of control in Afghanistan

Government

of Afghanistan

Taliban

Contested

Unconfirmed

DISTRICTS

133

190

74

1

POPULATION

15,157,565

13,286,692

451,928

43,004

Areas of control in Afghanistan

Government

of Afghanistan

Taliban

Contested

Unconfirmed

DISTRICTS

133

190

74

1

POPULATION

15,157,565

13,286,692

451,928

43,004

Source: FDD’s Long War Journal

With each side pursuing a “fight-and-talk” strategy, violence escalates throughout the rest of 2018 and into 2019, as both sides escalate military pressure to gain leverage at the negotiating table. In 2018 alone, the conflict costs the lives of about 25,000 people—the most since the U.S.-led invasion in 2001. And in July 2019, the U.N. says in a report that Afghan security forces and their American-led international allies are responsible for more civilian deaths so far in 2019 than the Taliban.

On Sept. 1, following nine rounds of talks, Taliban officials and an American negotiating team led by the veteran Afghan-born diplomat Zalmay Khalilzad initial a deal that calls for an incremental withdrawal of American forces, who number about 13,000, down from the peak of about 100,000 forces between 2010 and 2012. In return, the Taliban commit to police the country against al Qaeda, Islamic State and other transnational Islamist militant groups. But Mr. Trump breaks off the Doha negotiations six days later. Later, in November, during a Thanksgiving Day visit to U.S. troops, he says they have resume.

Wounded Afghan women gesture at the site of a car-bomb attack in Kabul on May 31, 2017.

Photo: SHAH MARAI/Agence France-Presse/Getty Images

Afghans walk near the Intercontinental Hotel as smoke billows during a fight between gunmen and Afghan security forces in Kabul on Jan. 21, 2018.

Photo: WAKIL KOHSAR/Agence France-Presse/Getty Images

Relatives and friends of Shah Marai Faizi, chief photographer in Afghanistan for Agence France-Presse, including his AFP colleague Wakil Kohsar, right, carry his coffin before his burial in Kabul on April 30, 2018, after his death in the second of two bombings that occurred in the Afghan capital.

Photo: ANDREW QUILTY/Agence France-Presse

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